Abstract: Captain Cook is recognised as the collector of Camponotus maculatus (Fabricius, 1782) from Sierra Leone and since then many subspecies have been described, most of which are from Africa. One, Camponotus maculatus humilior Forel, 1902 is common in northern Australia. We describe a morphological and molecular study aimed at determining the relationship of species of the C. maculatus group in Australia and Africa. From this we find no close relationship between the Australian and African species examined. We raise Camponotus maculatus humilior to species rank, synonymise Camponotus villosus Crawley, 1915 with Camponotus novaehollandiae Mayr, 1870 and describe Camponotus crozieri sp.n. We indicate the need for more work in defining the boundaries of Camponotus novaehollandiae.