Abstract: An occurrence of Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South Germany. – The Mediterranean myrmicine ant Crematogaster scutellaris has been imported to Germany repeatedly. The main ways of import are supposed to be deliveries of cork and timber. However, it was presumed that this ant species cannot survive in long lasting colonies under the climatic conditions of Central Europe. Now, a large, since several years existing colony was found in the roof-truss of a house in Laudenbach an der Bergstraße (Baden-Württemberg, situated between Darmstadt and Heidelberg). The local climate, characterized by mild winters and warm summers and the microclimatic conditions of the nesting site may have favoured the long lasting existence of this ant colony. The chances for a development of local populations starting from a single nest of C. scutellaris are discussed.