Abstract: The first checklist of the ants of Iran is presented. The study is based on a comprehensive review of literature and theexamination of material from our own collections and from several museums and institutions of different Europeancountries. 110 species belonging to 26 genera of six subfamilies of the Formicidae (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae,Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae and Aenictinae) are recognized from Iran. Most of the reported species were sampled in thenorth of the country, mostly near human settlements. One subfamily (Dorylinae), two genera (Ponera Latreille, 1804and Dorylus Fabricius, 1793), as well as seven species (Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798), A. kurdica Ruzsky,1905, Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky, 1905, Messor minor (Andre, 1883), Tapinoma karavaievi Emery, 1925,Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852) and Tetramorium inerme Mayr, 1877) were recorded for the Iranian fauna forthe first time. The most speciose genera were Camponotus Mayr, 1861, Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 and Messor Forel,1890 with 19, 14 and 13 species, respectively. Palaearctic zoogeographic elements prevail in Iran, but several Orientaland Afrotropical genera were also found. Many parts of the country are still studied insufficiently or even not studied atall and we suppose that the total species richness in Iran is essentially higher.