Abstract: Ants are ecosystem engineers, greatly affecting physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. The effects onphysical soil properties are connected with the building of corridors and galleries, which increase soil porosity and maycause separation of soil particles according to their size. Ant-mediated chemical changes of soil are represented mainlyby a shift of pH towards neutral and an increase in nutrient content (mostly nitrogen and phosphorus) in ant nest-affectedsoil. These effects correspond with accumulation of food in the nests and the effect on biological processes, such as acceleration of decomposition rate. Effects on biological soil properties may be connected with increased or decreasedmicrobial activity, which is affected by accumulation of organic matter and internal nest temperature and especiallymoisture. Effects on the soil vary between ant species; substantial variation can be found in the same species living indifferent conditions.