Abstract: Atopomyrmex mocquerysi ANDRÉ, 1889 is a West-Central African wood-excavating myrmicine species whose colonies construct galleries in the main live branches of their host trees, causing the distal parts of these branches to dry out. In southeastern Cameroon, this species was mainly found in woody savannahs that are burned annually. It was also present in the canopy of a secondary forest, but was relatively rare on trees growing along forest edges and entirely absent from the canopy of an old-growth forest. It was absent from oil palm and coffee tree plantations, rare on cocoa trees, present on 0.2% to 5.3% of the avocado, guava, mango and Citrus spp. trees monitored, and frequent on safoo trees (12.4%). A fire in a mango plantation seems to have favored its presence. The colonies generally exploit Aleyrodidae, Aphididae, Coccidae, and Stictococcidae. Workers forage for prey diurnally, mostly on the ground. Their predatory behavior is characterized by detection through contact. Workers recruit nestmates at short-range (within range of an alarm pheromone), rarely at long-range, after which they spread-eagle the prey and immediately cut it up on the spot. Individual workers retrieve the prey pieces. Unlike other territorially-dominant arboreal ants, A. mocquerysi is a threat to host trees because, in addition to being a wood-excavating species, its workers only slightly protect the foliage of their host tree from herbivorous insects since they mostly hunt on the ground.