Abstract: Olfactive conditioning was achieved in the ant Myrmica sabuleti Meinert, 1861 using either meat or sugared water as a reward (P < 0.016). This conditioning was superior using meat as a reward as had been the case in visual operant conditioning previously obtained in that species. Differential olfactive conditioning was also achieved in M. sabuleti using sugared water as a reward (0.031 < P < 0.016). This result suggests that these ants may use odours as cues to negotiate their way. Experiments were thus conducted in mazes provided with learned odours: the ants could negotiate their way (P < 0.001). They could also do so with alternative presence of visual and odorous cues (P < 0.001). Ants were then confronted with visual and odorous cues either in agreement or competitively presented. Myrmica sabuleti workers responded primarily to learned odours and secondarily to learned visual cues (correct odours + wrong visual cues: P < 0.001, wrong odours + correct visual cues: P < 0.01); the result for wrong odours + correct visual cues was still significant because the ants appeared to rapidly stop responding to learned odours when these elements fail to help them navigate.