Abstract: In the last decades the ant checklists of most Central and Eastern European countries were updated, with the exception of Romania. The last Romanian checklist was published in 1978 and contained only 76 species. The present work lists all species mentioned in publications until 2006. Up to now, altogether 103 valid species were recorded in the Romanian fauna (102 outdoor species), besides these there are eleven species of uncertain occurrence in Romania and two names which cannot be assigned to existing valid species. The comparison of Romanian and other Central and Eastern European myrmecofaunas reveals that the Romanian fauna is insufficiently known and that a considerable number of species (mostly parasitic and Mediterranean) remains to be detected.