Abstract: Information on biogeographical composition and vertical distribution patterns of regional ant faunas in the Alps is relatively scarce. In this study I investigated species number, vertical distribution and zoogeographical composition of the ant fauna of Vorarlberg (Austria). A total number of 68 species and 4 subfamilies of ants were recorded in the region. Using information from literature these ant species were related to biogeographical elements and classes. The major part of the ant fauna is associated with the mixed and deciduous forest zone (58 %) and the coniferous forest zone (31 %). A few ant species belong to the Mediterranean zone (10 %). Regarding the biogeographical composition the regional ant fauna is dominated by North-Transpalaearctic (13 spp., 19 %), Boreomontane (7 spp., 10 %), EuroSiberian (13 spp., 19 %) and South-Palaearctic elements (7 spp., 10 %). Total species number and species numbers of biogeographical classes and elements were analysed relative to altitude. Total species number and species numbers of the class of mixed and deciduous forest and Mediterranean zone as well as the biogeographical elements of these classes decrease significantly with altitude. In the class of the coniferous forest zone, North-Transpalaearctic and Montane elements decrease at higher elevations, while Alpine-Endemic and Boreomontane elements increase with altitude.